Maitum is geographically located at the South-Western Mindanao. A constituent of Region XII, Province of Sarangani, Philippines. It lies between these coordinates: 06°-02’ N and 124°-29’ East.

Maitum has 19 barangays namely Batian, Kalaneg, Kalaong, Kiambing, Kiayap, Mabay, Maguling, Malalag, Mindupok, New La Union, Old Poblacion, Pangi, Pinol, Sison, Ticulab, Tuanadatu, Upo, Wali, and Zion. With a total land area of 32,435 hectares. Barangay Zion, Bati-an, New La Union, Ticulab, Upo, Wali and Tuanadatu has the largest land area of about 13.63%, 13.15%, 10.08%, 9.2%, 7.49%, 7.42% and 7.09% of the total land area respectively. These barangays are found at the foothills of the vast mountain range in the northern part of the municipality. The rest are situated in the lowland and coastal areas. The smallest barangay is Kiambing.

The topographical feature of Maitum in general, is moderately rolling to mountainous with spots of gently rolling terrain. The areas bordering the provinces of South Cotabato are steep mountains, with hills and rolling terrain in Sultan Kudarat.

The slope of 30%-50%, characterized as moderately steep to very steep has the largest land coverage of 17,545 hectares (54%) of the total land area of the municipality, followed by the slope of 18%– 30% characterized as rolling to moderately steep with 5,892.00 hectares (18.6%) and slope of 0%-3% flat to nearly level with 5,630.00 hectares (17.52%).  Slope from 3%-8% has the lowest land coverage of 344.00 hectares (1.06%).

There are three main types of rock. The Igneous Rock is formed from the cooling of magma deep inside the earth they often have a large crystal, we can see them with our naked eyes. The Metamorphic Rock is formed through the change of igneous and sedimentary rocks. They can can be formed both underground and at the surface. The Sedimentary Rock is formed through solidification of sediments and they can be formed from organic remains such as limestone or from the cementing of other rocks.

The natural physical features of Maitum in general is moderately steep to very steep mountains in the south bordering the province of South Cotabato. This is the largest land scape of the municipality. Hills and rolling terrain in the west bordering the province of Sultan Kudarat and with gently rolling terrain and flat to nearly level terrain along the cost of Celebes Sea.

Maitum has two types of soil; clay loam and silty clay loam. The hilly and mountainous portions fall under clay loam which covers about 70.16% of the total land area of the municipality, while the lowland areas is classified as silty clay loam which comprised 29.84% of the total land area.

The municipality has six (6) identified land capability classes that can be found in the 19 barangays     including class “A”, class “B”, class “C”, class “D”, class “Y” and class “X”.

Land capability class “A” is characterized as a very good land. It can be cultivated safely requiring only simple and good farm management practices such as fertilization, liming, green manuring, crop rotation or application on farm manures or composting materials.  This land class is surfacing in the southern territory particularly in areas of Kiambing, Pangi, Old Poblacion, Malalag, Mabay, Mindupok, Maguling and Pinol.

Land capability class “B” is a good land for crop but requires erosion control measures and can easily be applied with conservation practices.  Its topographical feature is level to nearly level and gently sloping, slightly to moderately eroded.  This class lies over the areas of Pangi, Wali, Sison, Malalag, Kalaneg, Upo and Mindupok.

Land capability class “C” includes moderately good land that are slightly to moderately eroded. It can be cultivated safely provided that carefully planned erosion control measures, careful management and intensive practices are observed.  Lands under this class are found in Wali, New La Union, Zion, Kalaong, Maguling, Ticulab and Pinol, and a portion of Pangi and Sison.

Land capability class “D” includes fairly good lands that are strongly sloping, severely to very severely eroded which can be cultivated occasionally if handled with care but requires very careful management and complex conservation practices.  This class is suited for fruit trees and agro-forestry, surfacing in the areas of barangays Tuanadatu, Upo, Ticulab and Bati-an.

Land capability class “Y” is identified as very hilly and mountainous, specific for wildlife and forest reserve area. This can be used for grazing with careful management and definite restrictions. Lands that belong to this class covers the area of barangays Bati-an, Zion and New La Union.

Land capability class “X” is suited for fishponds, mangroves and nipa development. It is wet most of the time and cannot be economically drained.  It is found in barangays Mabay, Kalaong and Maguling.

There are only two classification of land in Maitum; the Forest Land covers an area of 21,773   hectares or 67.13% and the Alienable and Disposable Land of 10,662 hectares or equivalent to 32.87 percent of total land area of the municipality.